DC motors are one of the rotating electrical machines which can convert electrical energy (DC (Direct Current)) into mechanical energy. The most common types of DC Motors works on the forces generated by magnetic fields. Almost every type of DC motors has some internal mechanism, which is either electromechanical type or electronic type, so as to change the direction of current flow periodically in part of the motor.The DC motors consists of various parts such as a stationary set of magnets located in the stator and an armature consists of one or more windings made up of insulated wire.
and these winding wrapped around a soft iron core that focuses the magnetic field. The windings normally have various turns throughout the core, and in case of large motors, there can be several parallel paths for current flow. Additionally, both the ends of the winding wire are then connected to a commutator, which allows each armature coil to get energized in turn and allow connection of the rotating coils with the external power supply by brushes.There are three types of DC Motors, which are series DC motor, shunt DC motor, and compound DC motor.
Whereas, series DC motors are mainly used when high starting torque is needed and speed variations are possible, such as in Cranes, Traction system, air compressors, Sewing machine, Vacuum Cleaner, etc. And, shunt motors are mainly used when constant speed is needed and where starting conditions are simple. The numerous applications of shunt DC motors are in Centrifugal Pumps, Lathe Machines, Blowers, Fans, Conveyors, Weaving Machine, Lifts, Spinning machines, etc. Similarly, compound motors are generally used when high starting torque and proper constant speed is needed such as in Shears.
Presses, Conveyors, Rolling Mills, Elevators, Heavy Planners, etc.DC motors are used for numerous applications such as electric car windows, electric razors, and remote control cars. Also, small DC Motors can be used in toys, tools, and various appliances and moreover, they are having applications in industrial processes such as welding processes, electrolytic processes, and various motors drives. The simple design of DC Motors and its reliability makes them suitable for many different uses. Some of the advantages of DC Motors are that they are it is easy to design, available in low cost and simple designs, and they offer excellent control over speed.